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Cheremisinoff Nicholas P. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices

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Cheremisinoff Nicholas P. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey, and Scrivener Publishing LLC, Salem, Massachusetts, 2013. — 265 p. — ISBN 978-1-118-23787-8.
This volume tackles for the first time in decades the world's gas flaring practices, a difficult, hot-button issue of our time, whose consequences are only just beginning to be understood. The book examines both the technical and environmental aspects of gas flaring, highlights different flare designs, and presents real-world case studies illustrating the proper use of gas flaring and how to avoid polluting flaring events. The only guide of its kind, this remarkable book can help professionals in the oil and gas industry take an important step toward reducing worldwide CO2 emissions.
Contents
Preface
About the author
Principles of Combustion
Introduction
Combustion Basics
Physical Gas Laws
Stoichiometric and Thermodynamic Considerations
Ignition
Flammability and Flammable Mixtures
Gas Mixtures
Overview of Flares and Gas Flaring Practices
General Description
Types of Flares
Flare System Components and Design Features
Flare Regulations
Flare Enforcement Actions
Major Suppliers
Flare Terminology
Overview of Disposal Systems and Relief Headers
Blowdown Systems
Disposal System Components
Quench Drum
Seals and the Seal Drum
Knockout Drums
Flare Types
Introduction
Hydrogen Assisted Flares
Steam Assisted Flares
Efficiency and Smoking Flares
Remote Sensing and Monitoring
Introduction
Remote Sensing Dial Technology
Experience
Practical Considerations and Emissions Calculations
Introduction
Sizing Considerations
General Permit Obligations
Monitoring System Requirements
Marama Guidelines for Calculating Flare Emissions
TCEQ New Source Review (NSR) Emission Calculations
U.S.EPAsAP-42
Calculations Versus Measurement
Case Studies
Introduction
The Exxon Chalmette Refinery
The BP Texas City Refinery
Valero Tennessee Refinery
Appendix
Properties Data
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