Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.: CRC Press LLC., 1999. 350 p. — ISBN: 0849316057.Wind and solar energy are pollution-free sources of abundant power. With renewable power generation expected to become more and more profitable with open access to transmission lines and rapid growth around the world, the design, operation, and control of alternative energy resources becomes an essential field of study. Wind and Solar Power Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of this rapidly growing segment of the power industry. It provides the fundamentals of wind and solar power generation, energy conversion and storage, and the operational aspects of power electronics and the quality of power. It covers in detail the design, operation, and control methods applicable to stand-alone as well as grid-connected power systems and discusses the present status of and the on-going research in renewable power around the world. Wind and Solar Power Systems stands as the most modern, complete book available on renewable energy. Electrical, environmental and mechanical engineering professionals along with policy-makers evaluating the renewable energy potential of their regions will find in it the background and the details they need for decision making.Contents Introduction Industry Overview Incentives for Renewables Utility Perspective Modularity Emission—Free References Wind Power Wind in the World The U.S.A. Europe India Mexico Ongoing Research and Development References Photovoltaic Power Present Status Building Integrated pv Systems pv Cell Technologies Single-Crystalline Silicon Polycrystalline and Semicrystalline Thin Films Amorphous Silicon Spheral Concentrated Cells pv Energy Maps References Wind Speed and Energy Distributions Speed and Power Relations Power Extracted from the Wind Rotor Swept Area Air Density Global Wind Patterns Wind Speed Distribution Weibull Probability Distribution Mode and Mean Speeds Root Mean Cube Speed Mode, Mean, and rmc Speeds Compared Energy Distribution Digital Data Loggers Effect of Height Importance of Reliable Data Wind Speed Prediction Wind Resource Maps The U.S.A. Minnesota The United Kingdom Europe Mexico India References Wind Power System System Components Tower Turbine Blades Yaw Control Speed Control Turbine Rating Electrical Load Matching Variable-Speed Operation System Design Features Number of Blades Rotor Upwind or Downwind Horizontal Axis Versus Vertical Axis Spacing of the Towers Maximum Power Operation Constant Tip—Speed Ratio Scheme Peak Power Tracking Scheme System Control Requirements Speed Control Rate Control Environmental Aspects Audible Noise Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) References Electrical Generator Electromechanical Energy Conversion DC Machine Synchronous Machine Induction Machine Induction Generator Construction Working Principle Rotor Speed and Slip Equivalent Circuit for Performance Calculations Efficiency and Cooling Self-Excitation Capacitance Torque-Speed Characteristic Transients References Generator Drives Speed Control Regions Generator Drives One Fixed—Speed Drive Two Fixed-Speeds Drive Variable-Speed Using Gear Drive Variable-Speed Using Power Electronics Scherbius Variable-Speed Drive Variable-Speed Direct Drive Drive Selection Cut—Out Speed Selection References Solar Photovoltaic Power System The pv Cell Module and Array Equivalent Electrical Circuit Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current i—v and p-v Curves Array Design Sun Intensity Sun Angle Shadow Effect Temperature Effect Effect of Climate Electrical Load Matching Sun Tracking Peak Power Point Operation pv System Components References Solar Thermal System Energy Collection Parabolic Trough Central Receiver Parabolic Dish Solar Power Plant Synchronous Generator Equivalent Electrical Circuit Excitation Methods Electrical Power Output Transient Stability Limit Commercial Power Plants References Energy Storage Battery Types of Batteries Lead-Acid Nickel Cadmium Nickel—Metal Hydride Lithium-Ion Lithium-Polymer Zinc-Air Equivalent Electrical Circuit Performance Characteristics Charge / Discharge Voltages Charge / Discharge Ratio Energy Efficiency Internal Resistance Charge Efficiency Self-Discharge and Trickle Charge Memory Effect Effects of Temperature Internal Loss and Temperature Rise Random Failure Wear—Out Failure Various Batteries Compared More on Lead-Acid Battery Battery Design Battery Charging Charge Regulators Multiple Charge Rates Single Charge Rate Unregulated Charging Battery Management Monitoring and Controls Safety Flywheel Energy Relations Flywheel System Components Flywheel Benefits Over Battery Compressed Air Superconducting Coil References Power Electronics Basic Switching Devices AC to DC Rectifier DC to AC Inverter Grid Interface Controls oltage Control Frequency Control Battery Charge / Discharge Converters Battery Charge Converter Battery Discharge Converter Power Shunts References Stand-Alone System pv Stand-Alone Electric Vehicle Wind Stand-Alone Hybrid System Hybrid with Diesel Hybrid with Fuel Cell Mode Controller Load Sharing System Sizing Power and Energy Estimates Battery Sizing pv Array Sizing Wind Farm Sizing References Grid-Connected System Interface Requirements Synchronizing with Grid Inrush Current Synchronous Operation Load Transient Safety Operating Limit Voltage Regulation Stability Limit Energy Storage and Load Scheduling Utility Resource Planning Tool References Electrical Performance Voltage Current and Power Relations Component Design for Maximum Efficiency Electrical System Model Static Bus Impedance and Voltage Regulation Dynamic Bus Impedance and Ripple Harmonics Quality of Power Harmonic Distortion oltage Transients and Sags oltage Flickers Renewable Capacity Limit Systems Stiffness nterfacing Standards Lightning Protection National Electrical Code® on Renewable Power Systems References Plant Economy Energy Delivery Factor Initial Capital Cost Availability and Maintenance Energy Cost Estimates Sensitivity Analysis Effect of Wind Speed Variations Effect of Tower Height Profitability Index Wind Farm Screening Chart pv Park Screening Chart Stand—Alone pv Versus Grid Line Hybrid Economics References The Future World Electricity Demand to 2015 Wind Future pv Future Declining Production Costs Market Penetration Effect of Utility Restructuring Energy Policy Act of 1992 Impact on Renewable Power Producers References Further Reading Appendix Appendix Acronyms Conversion of Units
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