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Patel M.R. Wind and Solar Power Systems

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Patel M.R. Wind and Solar Power Systems
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.: CRC Press LLC., 1999. 350 p. — ISBN: 0849316057.
Wind and solar energy are pollution-free sources of abundant power. With renewable power generation expected to become more and more profitable with open access to transmission lines and rapid growth around the world, the design, operation, and control of alternative energy resources becomes an essential field of study.
Wind and Solar Power Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of this rapidly growing segment of the power industry. It provides the fundamentals of wind and solar power generation, energy conversion and storage, and the operational aspects of power electronics and the quality of power. It covers in detail the design, operation, and control methods applicable to stand-alone as well as grid-connected power systems and discusses the present status of and the on-going research in renewable power around the world.
Wind and Solar Power Systems stands as the most modern, complete book available on renewable energy. Electrical, environmental and mechanical engineering professionals along with policy-makers evaluating the renewable energy potential of their regions will find in it the background and the details they need for decision making.
Contents
Introduction
Industry Overview
Incentives for Renewables
Utility Perspective
Modularity
Emission—Free
References
Wind Power
Wind in the World
The U.S.A.
Europe
India
Mexico
Ongoing Research and Development
References
Photovoltaic Power
Present Status
Building Integrated pv Systems
pv Cell Technologies
Single-Crystalline Silicon
Polycrystalline and Semicrystalline
Thin Films
Amorphous Silicon
Spheral
Concentrated Cells
pv Energy Maps
References
Wind Speed and Energy Distributions
Speed and Power Relations
Power Extracted from the Wind
Rotor Swept Area
Air Density
Global Wind Patterns
Wind Speed Distribution
Weibull Probability Distribution
Mode and Mean Speeds
Root Mean Cube Speed
Mode, Mean, and rmc Speeds Compared
Energy Distribution
Digital Data Loggers
Effect of Height
Importance of Reliable Data
Wind Speed Prediction
Wind Resource Maps
The U.S.A.
Minnesota
The United Kingdom
Europe
Mexico
India
References
Wind Power System
System Components
Tower
Turbine Blades
Yaw Control
Speed Control
Turbine Rating
Electrical Load Matching
Variable-Speed Operation
System Design Features
Number of Blades
Rotor Upwind or Downwind
Horizontal Axis Versus Vertical Axis
Spacing of the Towers
Maximum Power Operation
Constant Tip—Speed Ratio Scheme
Peak Power Tracking Scheme
System Control Requirements
Speed Control
Rate Control
Environmental Aspects
Audible Noise
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
References
Electrical Generator
Electromechanical Energy Conversion
DC Machine
Synchronous Machine
Induction Machine
Induction Generator
Construction
Working Principle
Rotor Speed and Slip
Equivalent Circuit for Performance Calculations
Efficiency and Cooling
Self-Excitation Capacitance
Torque-Speed Characteristic
Transients
References
Generator Drives
Speed Control Regions
Generator Drives
One Fixed—Speed Drive
Two Fixed-Speeds Drive
Variable-Speed Using Gear Drive
Variable-Speed Using Power Electronics
Scherbius Variable-Speed Drive
Variable-Speed Direct Drive
Drive Selection
Cut—Out Speed Selection
References
Solar Photovoltaic Power System
The pv Cell
Module and Array
Equivalent Electrical Circuit
Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current
i—v and p-v Curves
Array Design
Sun Intensity
Sun Angle
Shadow Effect
Temperature Effect
Effect of Climate
Electrical Load Matching
Sun Tracking
Peak Power Point Operation
pv System Components
References
Solar Thermal System
Energy Collection
Parabolic Trough
Central Receiver
Parabolic Dish
Solar
Power Plant
Synchronous Generator
Equivalent Electrical Circuit
Excitation Methods
Electrical Power Output
Transient Stability Limit
Commercial Power Plants
References
Energy Storage
Battery
Types of Batteries
Lead-Acid
Nickel Cadmium
Nickel—Metal Hydride
Lithium-Ion
Lithium-Polymer
Zinc-Air
Equivalent Electrical Circuit
Performance Characteristics
Charge / Discharge Voltages
Charge / Discharge Ratio
Energy Efficiency
Internal Resistance
Charge Efficiency
Self-Discharge and Trickle Charge
Memory Effect
Effects of Temperature
Internal Loss and Temperature Rise
Random Failure
Wear—Out Failure
Various Batteries Compared
More on Lead-Acid Battery
Battery Design
Battery Charging
Charge Regulators
Multiple Charge Rates
Single Charge Rate
Unregulated Charging
Battery Management
Monitoring and Controls
Safety
Flywheel
Energy Relations
Flywheel System Components
Flywheel Benefits Over Battery
Compressed Air
Superconducting Coil
References
Power Electronics
Basic Switching Devices
AC to DC Rectifier
DC to AC Inverter
Grid Interface Controls
oltage Control
Frequency Control
Battery Charge / Discharge Converters
Battery Charge Converter
Battery Discharge Converter
Power Shunts
References
Stand-Alone System
pv Stand-Alone
Electric Vehicle
Wind Stand-Alone
Hybrid System
Hybrid with Diesel
Hybrid with Fuel Cell
Mode Controller
Load Sharing
System Sizing
Power and Energy Estimates
Battery Sizing
pv Array Sizing
Wind Farm Sizing
References
Grid-Connected System
Interface Requirements
Synchronizing with Grid
Inrush Current
Synchronous Operation
Load Transient
Safety
Operating Limit
Voltage Regulation
Stability Limit
Energy Storage and Load Scheduling
Utility Resource Planning Tool
References
Electrical Performance
Voltage Current and Power Relations
Component Design for Maximum Efficiency
Electrical System Model
Static Bus Impedance and Voltage Regulation
Dynamic Bus Impedance and Ripple
Harmonics
Quality of Power
Harmonic Distortion
oltage Transients and Sags
oltage Flickers
Renewable Capacity Limit
Systems Stiffness
nterfacing Standards
Lightning Protection
National Electrical Code® on Renewable Power Systems
References
Plant Economy
Energy Delivery Factor
Initial Capital Cost
Availability and Maintenance
Energy Cost Estimates
Sensitivity Analysis
Effect of Wind Speed Variations
Effect of Tower Height
Profitability Index
Wind Farm Screening Chart
pv Park Screening Chart
Stand—Alone pv Versus Grid Line
Hybrid Economics
References
The Future
World Electricity Demand to 2015
Wind Future
pv Future
Declining Production Costs
Market Penetration
Effect of Utility Restructuring
Energy Policy Act of 1992
Impact on Renewable Power Producers
References
Further Reading
Appendix
Appendix
Acronyms
Conversion of Units
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