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Basu P. Combustion and Gasification in Fluidized Beds

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Basu P. Combustion and Gasification in Fluidized Beds
Taylor & Francis Group, LLC., 2006. — 470 p.
Table of Contents
Introduction
Background
Fluidized Bed Equipment
Applications
Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
Fluidized Bed Boilers
Application in Cement Industries
Features of Fluidized Beds
Advantages of Fluidized Bed Boilers
Features Specific to CFB Boiler
Fluidized Bed and Other Technology Options
Technological Options for Generation of Power from Solid Fuels
Improved Firing
Combined-Cycle Plants
Cost Implications
References
Hydrodynamics
Regimes of Fluidization
Packed Beds
Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Slugging
Turbulent Beds
Bubbling to Turbulent Transition
Terminal Velocity of a Particle
Freeboard and Furnace Heights
Fast Fluidized Bed
Characteristics of Fast Beds
Transition to Fast Fluidization
Dense Suspension Up-Flow
Hydrodynamic Regimes in a CFB
Difference in Operating Regimes of CFB Boilers and Reactors
Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds
Axial Voidage Profile
Lateral Distribution of Voidage in a Fast Bed
Gas–Solid Mixing
Gas–Solid Slip Velocity
Dispersion
Scale-Up
Circulating Fluidized Bed
Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Cyclone
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
Dimensionless Numbers
References
Fluidized Bed Gasification
Types of Gasifiers
Entrained Bed
Fluidized Bed
Spouted Bed
Fixed/Moving Bed
Theory
Pyrolysis or Devolatilization
Combustion
Gasification
Composition of Gas Yield
Effect of Operating Parameters on Gasification
Boudouard Reaction
Water–Gas
Methanation
Effect of Feed Properties on Gasification
Fuel Reactivity
Volatile Matter
Ash
Moisture
Fluidized Bed Gasification
Comparison of Bubbling and Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
Types of Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
Examples of Some Fluidized Bed Gasifiers
Winkler Gasifier
KRW Gasifier
Spouted Bed Partial Gasifier
Foster Wheeler Atmospheric CFB Gasifier
Battelle/Columbus Indirect Gasifier
Halliburton KBR Transport Reactor
Carbon Dioxide Acceptor Process
Gas Cleaning
Sulfur and Other Chemical Contaminants Removal
Tar Removal
Particulate Removal
Design Considerations
Gasifier Efficiency
Equivalence Ratio
Gas Composition
Energy and Mass Balance
Bed Materials
Gasifier Sizing
Alternative Design Approach
Modeling of Fluidized Bed Gasification
Appendix 3A
Estimating Equilibrium Gas Composition
Appendix 3B
An Example of a Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Combustion
Stages of Combustion
Heating and Drying
Devolatilization
Volatile Combustion
Char Combustion
Burning Rate of Char in Fluidized Beds
Communition Phenomena during Combustion
Factors Affecting Combustion Efficiency
Feed Stock
Operating Conditions
Combustion in Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boilers
Recirculation of Fly Ash
Effect of Design Parameters on Combustion Efficiency
Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers
Combustion of Char Particles
Effect of Cyclone Design on Combustion Efficiency
Some Combustion Design Considerations
Performance Modeling
Biomass Combustion
Agglomeration
Fouling
Corrosion Potential in Biomass Firing
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
Dimensionless Numbers
References
Emissions
Air Pollution
Pollutants
Emission Standards
Sulfur Dioxide Emission
Chemical Reactions
Reactions on Single Sorbent Particles
Reactivity of Sorbents
Sulfur Capture in Fluidized Beds
Simple Model for Sulfur Capture in CFB Boilers
Selection of Sorbent
Nitrogen Oxide Emission
Sources of NOx
Methods of Reduction of NOx Emissions
NOx Emission from CFB
Nitrous Oxide Emission
Mechanism of Formation of N2O in CFB
Effects of Operating Parameters on N2O
Reduction of N2O
Mercury Emission
Sorbent Injection
Electro-Catalytic Oxidation
Precombustion Technologies
Carbon Monoxide Emission
Carbon Dioxide Emission
Emission of Trace Organics
Particulate Emission
Ash Characteristics
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Heat Transfer
Gas-to-Particle Heat Transfer
Gas-to-Particle Heat Transfer Equations
Heating of Gas and Solids in the Fast Bed
Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds
Mechanism of Heat Transfer
Theory
Experimental Observations in a CFB Boiler
Effect of Vertical Fins on the Walls
Heat Transfer in Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Mechanistic Model
Experimental Observations in Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Heat-Transfer Correlation in Bubbling Beds
Use of Design Graphs
Calculation Based on Tables
Freeboard Heat Transfer in Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Heat Transfer in Commercial-Size CFB Boilers
Heat Transfer to the Walls of Commercial CFB Boilers
Wing Walls
Heat-Transfer Variation along the Furnace Height
Circumferential Distribution of Heat-Transfer Coefficient
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
Dimensionless Numbers
References
Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler
Description of a BFB Boiler
Feedstock Preparation and Feeding
Air and Gas Handling
Ash and Emission Systems
Steam Generation System
Combustion Chamber
Features of BFB Boilers
Advantages
Limitations
Thermal Design of Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boilers
Overall Heat Balance of the Boiler
Boiler Efficiency
Energy Balance in Dense Bubbling Bed
Heat Balance of Boiler Components
Mass Flow Rates of Fuel and Air
Gas-Side Heat Balance
Combustion in Bubbling Fluidized Bed
Coal Combustion in BFB Boilers
Minimization of Combustible Losses in BFB Combustors
Furnace Design
Basic Design of Furnace
Load Operations
Other Operating Conditions
Start-Up Procedure and Control
Start-Up Procedure
Control of BFB Boiler
Some Operational Problems and Remedies
Erosion of In-Bed Components
Design of Feed Systems for BFB Bed Boiler
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler
General Arrangement
Air System
Flue Gas Stream
Solid Stream
Water–Steam Circuit
Types of CFB Boilers
Boilers without Bubbling Bed Heat Exchangers
Boilers with Bubbling Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger
Boilers with Inertial or Impact Separators
Boilers with Vertical, Noncircular Cyclones
Other Types
Non-CFB Solid Circulation Boilers
Circo-Fluid Boilers
Low-Solid Circulation Boiler
Circulating Moving Bed Boiler
Combustion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Furnace
Design of CFB Boilers
Combustion Calculations
Heat Balance
Mass Balance
Flow Split
Control of Bed Inventory
Some Operating Issues
Furnace Design
Furnace Cross-Section
Width and Breadth Ratio
Furnace Openings
Design of Heating Surfaces
Effect of Fuel Type on Furnace Heat Load
Heat Absorption in the External Heat Exchanger
Heat Absorption in the Furnace and Rest of the Boiler
Heat Balance around a CFB Loop
Auxiliary Power Consumption
Control of CFB Boilers
Load Operation
Load Control Options
Supercritical CFB Boiler
Supercritical Operation
Vertical vs. Wrapped Tube Arrangement
Low Heat Flux
Cost Advantage
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Material Issues
Material Selection Criteria
Structural Requirements
Heat-Transfer Duty
Erosion Potential
Basics of Erosion
Types of Erosion
Erosion in Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Options for Reduction of Erosion in Bubbling Beds
Erosion in CFB Boilers
Corrosion Potentials
Corrosion Mechanisms
Examples of Fire-Side Corrosion
Chemistry of Fire-Side Corrosion of Heating Surfaces
Chlorine Corrosion
Vanadium Corrosion
Prevention of High-Temperature Corrosion
Erosion–Corrosion
Fouling and Deposit Formation
Steels Used in Fluidized Bed Boilers
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Refractory and Insulations
Importance of Lining
Properties of Refractory
Types of Refractory
Types of Insulation
Anchors
Design Considerations of Lining
Areas of Refractory Use in Fluidized Bed Boilers
Failure Analysis
Refractory Maintenance
Expansion Joints
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Solid Handling Systems for Fluidized Beds
Solid Handling Systems
Fossil Fuel Plants
Municipal Solid Waste
Biomass Handling Systems
Feeding of Harvested Fuels
Feeding of Nonharvested Fuels
Feed System for Bubbling Beds
Types of Feeders
Mode of Feeding in Bubbling Beds
Feed Point Allocation
Feed System for Circulating Fluidized Beds
Fuel Feed Ports
Limestone Feed System
Design of Pneumatic Transport Lines for Solids
Pressure Drop in a Pneumatic Transport Line
Design of a Pneumatic Injection System
Fuel Splitter
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Air Distribution Grate
Distributor Plates
Plate-Type Distributor
Nozzle-Type Distributor
Sparge Pipe Distributor
Distributor Grids for CFB
Distributor Grids for Bubbling Beds
Operation of Distributors
What Causes Nonuniform Fluidization
Design Methods
Design Procedure for Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Design Procedure for Circulating Fluidized Beds
Practical Considerations
Plenum or Air Box
Sealing of Distributor
Attrition
Back-Flow of Solid
Opening and Closing of Nozzles
Erosion and Corrosion of Nozzles
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Gas–Solid Separators
Cyclones
Types of Cyclone
Theory
Critical Size of Particles
Working of Cyclones for CFB Combustors or Gasifiers
Pressure Drop through a Cyclone
Cyclone Collection Efficiency
Reentrainment of Solids
Cyclone Geometry
Effect of the Vortex Finder
Practical Considerations for CFB Cyclones
Impact Separator
Features and Types
Separation through Impaction
Separation through Interception
Grade Efficiency of Impingement Collectors
Some Types of Impact Separators
Inertial Separators
Separation through Gravity Settling
Cavity Separator
Design Steps
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Solid Recycle Systems
Types of Nonmechanical Valves
Loop-Seal
L-Valve
Valve
Principles of Operation
Solid Flow from Standpipe to Recycle Chamber
Flow of Solids through Recycle Chamber
Design of Loop-Seal
Pressure Balance
Size of Loop-Seal
Air-Flow through Loop-Seal
Design of L-Valve
Maximum Solid Flow Rate
Additional Design Considerations
Practical Considerations
Plugging of Loop-Seal
Pressure Surge
Avoiding Loop-Seal Plugging
Nomenclature
Greek Symbols
References
Appendix Characteristics of Solid Particles
Solid Particles
Equivalent Diameters
Sphericity (f)
Mean Particle Size and Its Measurement
Packing Characteristics
Particle Classification
Group C
Group A
Group B
Group D
Nomenclature
References
Appendix Stoichiometric Calculations
Chemical Reactions
Air Required
Sorbent Requirement
Solid Waste Produced
Gaseous Waste Products
Carbon Dioxide
Water Vapor
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sulfur Dioxide
Fly Ash
Heating Value of Fuels
Nomenclature
Reference
Appendix Simplified Model for Sulfur Capture
Nomenclature
Appendix Tables of Design Data
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