Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, National Research Council, 2006. 273 p. — ISBN:0-309-10049-6, 0-309-65472-6.Burning coal in electric utility plants produces, in addition to power, residues that contain constituents which may be harmful to the environment. The management of large volumes of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is a challenge for utilities, because they must either place the CCRs in landfills, surface impoundments, or mines, or find alternative uses for the material. This study focuses on the placement of CCRs in active and abandoned coal mines. The committee believes that placement of CCRs in mines as part of the reclamation process may be a viable option for the disposal of this material as long as the placement is properly planned and carried out in a manner that avoids significant adverse environmental and health impacts. This report discusses a variety of steps that are involved in planning and managing the use of CCRs as minefills, including an integrated process of CCR characterization and site characterization, management and engineering design of placement activities, and design and implementation of monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination moving from the mine site to the ambient environment. Enforceable federal standards are needed for the disposal of CCRs in minefills to ensure that states have adequate, explicit authority and that they implement minimum safeguardsContents Summary Introduction Coal Production and Use in the United States, Management of Coal Combustion Residues, Purpose of the Study, The Committee’s Approach, Report Roadmap, Coal Combustion Residues Types of Coal Combustion Residues, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Coal Combustion Residues, Disposal and Use Options for Coal Combustion Residues, Summary, Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues in the Environment Hydrological Processes Affecting CCR Behavior, Biogeochemical Processes Affecting CCR Behavior, Potential for Contaminant Transport from CCR in Coal Mines, Summary, Potential Impacts From Placement of Coal Combustion Residues in Coal Mines Environmental Impacts, Human Health, Summary, Current Regulatory Framework The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Other Federal Environmental Laws, EPA’s Regulatory Determination of 2000, State Programs, State Regulatory Agencies, Summary, Characterization for Coal Combustion Residue Management Risk-Based Framework for CCR Management, Site Characterization, CCR Characterization, Integration of CCR and Site Characterization Data, Summary, Management of Coal Combustion Residues in Reclamation Activities Reclamation, Monitoring, Summary, Synthesis of Issues For Planning and Regulation of Coal Combustion Residue Mine Placement Planning for CCR Management, Overarching Issues and Concerns, Summary, References Appendixes A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff B Information Provided to the Committee C Glossary D Acronyms and Abbreviations E Side-By-Side Comparison of Rcra to Smcra F Regulatory Requirements for Isolation
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