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Bostan I., Gheorghe A. Resilient Energy Systems: Renewables: Wind, Solar, Hydro

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Bostan I., Gheorghe A. Resilient Energy Systems: Renewables: Wind, Solar, Hydro
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013. 517 p. — ISSN:1566-0443, ISBN:978-94-007-4188-1, ISBN:978-94-007-4189-8 (eBook)
Renewable energy systems are playing an important role in the current discourse on energy security and sustainability. Scientific, engineering and economic solutions are adopted, and their is a constant effort to understand mechanisms and options to allow a faster penetration of renewable systems in the current energy mix and energy market. Readers of this book will have access to information, engineering design and economic solutions for harvesting local and regional energy potential by means of solar, wind, hydro resources. It will enable graduate students, researchers, promoters of sustainable energy technologies,consulting engineering experts, knowledgeable public to understand the solutions, methods, techniques suitable for different phases of design and implementation of a large selection of renewable energy technologies, and to identify their sustainability in application and policy
Contents
Introduction
Use of Renewable Energy: World, European and National Perspectives
Recent Consumption of Primary Energy at World and at National Levels
World Consumption of Primary Energy in the World
Energy and the Environment
Factors that Change the Climate
How to Heal Terra
Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development
Theoretical, Technical and Economical Energy Potential
Global Renewable Energy: Its Present and Future
Experience of European Countries in RES Promotion and Use
References
Solar Energy
The Sun as Energy Source
General Notions
Solar Radiation on the Earth Surface
The Sun and the Global Energy Balance
Greenhouse Effect Simulation
Solar Energy Potential
Global Solar Energy Potential
Estimation of Available Solar Radiation
Solar Energy Conversion Systems
General View
Solar Systems for Water Heating
Systems for Solar Thermal Energy Conversion into Electrical Energy by Combining the Greenhouse Effect and Air Pressure Difference
Solar Systems with Solar Rays’ Concentration
Photovoltaic Systems
References
Kinetical Energy of River Running Water
Energy Potential
Classification of Hydropower Systems
Global Energy Potential
Macro-, Mini- or Micro Hydropower?
Calculation of Water Kinetic Energy Potential
Flow Rate Measurement
How to Choose a Hydro Turbine?
Hydraulic Energy Conversion Systems
Brief History of Hydraulic Energy Conversion Systems Development
Modern Water Wheels
Floating Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants for River Water Kinetic Energy Conversion
Micro Hydroelectric Power Plant with Pintle and Blades with Rectilinear Profile in Normal Section
Conceptual Diagrams
Modeling of Blades Interaction with the Water
Laboratory Testing of the Micro Hydroelectric Power Plant with Pintle
Micro Hydroelectric Power Plant with Horizontal Axle and Helical Turbine
Conceptual Diagrams
Some Aspects of Analytic Description of the Basic Geometrical Parameters
Modeling of the Blades Interaction with Water
Micro Hydropower Plant with Rotor’s Pintle and Hydrodynamic Profile of Blades
Conceptual Diagrams
Research on the Factors of Influence of Kinetic Energy Conversion Efficiency and Design of the Hydrodynamic Rotor
Precessional Multiplieras Main Component in the Kinematical Structure of the Micro Hydropower Plant
Design, Manufacturing and Testing of Low Speed Centrifugal Pump for Micro Hydropower Plants
Development of the Design Concept and Manufacturing of Pilot Station of Polyfunctional Floating Micro Hydro Power Plant for Experimental Research in Real Conditions
Floating Micro Hydropower Plants for River Water Kinetic Energy Conversion into Electrical and Mechanical Energy
References
Wind Energy
Wind as Energy Source
Estimation of the Wind Energy Resources
Characteristics and Parameters of the Wind Energy
Methodology of Wind Power Potential Estimation
Statistics of Wind Climatology and the Wind Atlas
Conversion of the Air Flow Kinetic Energy into Mechanical Energy: Betz Limit
Wind Energy and Power
Wind Turbine in the Air Flow
Betz Limit
Number of Blades and Rotor Diameter Effect
Evolution of Wind Technology Development
Commencement of Commercial Technologies
Wind Turbine Design
Principles of Control of Wind Turbine Power Output to the Grid
Constructive Schemes for Generator Operating
Blades Manufacturing Materials
Large Wind Turbines and Farms
Large Wind Turbines: Trends and Objectives
Wind Farms
Small Power Wind Turbines
Global Market Overview, Manufacturing Companies and Incentive Policies
Small Power Wind Turbines Designed at the Technical University of Moldova
References
Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG) for Wind Turbines and Micro Hydro Turbines
Technical Requirements Imposed to Electric Generators for Hydraulic and Wind Energy Conversion
Synchronous Generators with Electric Excitation or Permanent Magnets
Constructive Schemes of PMG
Example of Wind Turbine PMG Design
Main Dimensions of PMG
Design of Teeth and Slots Zone and ArmatureWinding
Calculation of Magnetic Circuit
Calculation of Parameters
External Characteristic of Generator
Mass of Active Materials
Permanent Magnet Generator as a Component Part of a Wind Turbine
References
SeaWavesEnergy
Generalities
Energy potential
Tidal Energy Potential
Ocean Currents Energy Potential
Ocean Waves Energy Potential
Tidal Energy: Theoretical Considerations
General Notions
Tidal Physics
Amplitude, Cycle Period and Tidal Braking
Theoretical Aspects of Wave Energy
Some Aspects of Wave Formation
Types and Basic Characteristics of Waves
Waves and Wind
Some Aspects of the Wave Theory
Conceptual Systems of Ocean Energy Conversion
Classification of Conversion Systems
Water Turbines with Submersible Blades
Systems Based on the Oscillating Water Column
System with Floatable Elements
Cost Analysis of a Number of Coastal Systems
Wave Energy Capture Systems
Tidal Energy Capture Systems
Wave Energy Capture Systems
Wave Energy Capture Systems, Authors’ Elaborations
Wave Energy Conversion Plants
Alternative Rotational Motion Summing
Mechanisms for Wave Energy Conversion Systems
References
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