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Staikov G. (ed.) Electrocrystallization in Nanotechnology
WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2007. - 280.
В книге рассмотрены базовые принципы процесса электрокристаллизации и их применение в микро- и нанотехнологии.

Contents

Preface
List of Contributors
Fundamentals

The Impact of Electrocrystallization on Nanotechnology
Georgi Staikov and Alexander Milchev

Introduction
Thermodynamic Properties of Large and Small Phases
The State of Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Electrochemical Supersaturation and Undersaturation
The Thermodynamic Work for Nucleus Formation
Classical Nucleation Theory
Atomistic Nucleation Theory
Kinetics of Nucleus Formation in Electrocrystallization
Energy State of the Electrode Surface and Spatial Distribution of
Nanoclusters
Electrochemical Growth of Nanoparticles and Ultrathin Films
Growth of 3D Nanoclusters
Growth of 2D Nanoclusters and Formation of UPD Monolayers
Localization of Electrocrystallization Processes and Nanostructuring
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

Computer Simulations of Electrochemical Low-dimensional Metal Phase Formation
Marcelo M. Mariscal and Ezequiel P. M. Leiva

Introduction
Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Generalities
Nanostructuring of Metallic Surfaces
Monte Carlo Method
Generalities
Off-lattice Models
Stability of Metallic Nanostructures
Lattice Models
Introduction
Electrocrystallization
Dynamics of Crystal Growth
Simulation of a Complex Underpotential Deposition System
Brownian and Langevin Dynamics Simulations
Generalities
Applications in Electrochemical Nanostructuring and Crystal
Growth
Conclusions and Outlook
Acknowledgments
References

Electrodeposition of Metals in Templates and STM Tip-generated 0D Nanocavities
Wolfgang Kautek

Introduction
Bottom-up Template Approach
Top-down SPM Approach
Thermodynamics of Low-dimensional Phases
Experiments on the Electrodeposition in STM-tip-generated
Nanocavities
Underpotential Behavior of Bismuth on Gold
Zero-dimensional Bi Deposition
Conclusions
Acknowledgment
References

Nanoscale Electrocrystallization of Metals and Semiconductors from Ionic Liquids
Walter Freyland, Chitradurga L. Aravinda, and Ditimar Borissov

Introduction
Some Electrochemical and Interfacial Characteristics of Ionic Liquids (ILs)
Variable Temperature Electrochemical SPM Technique for Studies with Ionic Liquids
Underpotential Deposition of Metals: Phase Formation and Transitions
Ag on Au(111): Aqueous versus Ionic Liquid Electrolytes
Zn on Au(111): Spinodal Decomposition and Surface Alloying
Overpotential Deposition of Metals, Alloys and Semiconductors
Co – Al, Ni – Al and Ti – Al Alloy Deposition
Nanoscale Growth of Al – Sb Compound Semiconductors
Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgment
References

Superconformal Film Growth
Thomas P. Moffat, Daniel Wheeler, and Daniel Josell

Introduction
Competitive Adsorption: Inhibition versus Acceleration
Quantifying the Impact of Competitive Adsorption on Metal Deposition
Kinetics
Feature Filling
Shape Change Simulations
Stability Analysis
Conclusions and Outlook
References

II.Preparation and Properties of Nanostructures

Localized Electrocrystallization of Metals by STM Tip Nanoelectrodes
Werner Schindler and Philipp Hugelmann

Electrochemistry in Nanoscale Dimensions
Jump-to-Contact Metal Deposition
Scanning Electrochemical Microscope
STM Tip Electrochemical Nanoelectrodes
Metal Deposition by STM Tip Electrochemical Nanoelectrodes
Metal Dissolution by STM Tip Electrochemical Nanoelectrodes
The Importance of Nanoelectrode Tip Shape and Surface Quality
Localized Electrodeposition of Single Metal Nanostructures
Summary and Outlook Acknowledgments
References

Fabrication of Ordered Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Layers and their Application to Nanotechnology
Hidetaka Asoh and Sachiko Ono

Introduction
Self-ordered Anodic Porous Alumina
Introduction
Controlling Factor of Self-ordering of Pore Arrangement in Anodic
Porous Alumina Typical Current–Time Transients at Constant Voltages
Change in the Porosity of Anodic Alumina with Increasing Formation
Voltage
Typical Self-ordering Behavior
High-current-density/High-electric-field Anodization
New Self-ordering Conditions
Ideally Ordered Anodic Porous Alumina
Two-step Anodization
Fabrication of Ideally Ordered Anodic Porous Alumina Square Cell Arrangement
Detailed Observation of Square Cells Anodic Porous Alumina with 3D Periodicity Modulation of Channel Structure
2D/3D Composite Porous Alumina Application of Nanoporous Alumina to a Mask for Fabrication of
Nanostructures
Nanopatterning: Conventional Lithography vs. Natural Lithography
Anodization of Al on a Si Substrate
Natural Lithography of Si Surfaces Using Anodic Porous Alumina as a Mask
Summary
Acknowledgments
References

Electrochemical Fabrication of Metal Nanocontacts and Nanogaps
Fang Chen and N. J. Tao

Introduction Electrochemical Fabrication of Metal Nanocontacts STM/AFM Assisted Method
Electrodeposition on Surface-supported Electrodes
Self-terminated Method
Electrochemical Etching
Nanocontacts Prepared Using Nanopores Solid State Electrochemical Reaction Properties of Metal Nanocontacts Mechanical Properties Electron Transport Electrochemical Properties Device Properties Magnetic Properties
Sensing Properties
Electrochemical Fabrication of Metal Nanogaps
AC-loop Monitoring System
DC-loop Monitoring System Electric Double Layer as Feedback
High-frequency Impedance as Feedback
Application of Nanogaps
Summary
Acknowledgment
References

Nanowires by Electrochemical Step Edge Decoration (ESED)
Reginald M. Penner

Introduction General Considerations
Direct Nanowire Electrodeposition Compound Nanowires by Cyclic Electrodeposition/Stripping
Electrochemical/Chemical Synthesis of Nanowires
Nanowire Thinning by Electrooxidation
Summary
Acknowledgments
References

Electrochemical Fabrication of Arrayed Nanostructures
Takayuki Homma

Introduction
Formation of Metal Nanodots Along the Step Edge of the Si(111)
Surface Maskless Fabrication of Metal Nanodot Arrays using Electroless
Deposition Induced by Controlled Local Surface Activities
Conclusion
References

Electrodeposition of Two-dimensional Magnetic Nanostructures on Single Crystal Electrode Surfaces
Philippe Allongue and Fouad Maroun

Introduction
Ultrathin Magnetic Films Magnetic Moment of Ultrathin Films
In Situ Magnetic Characterizations Alternating Gradient Field Magnetometry (AGFM)
Magneto Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE)
Description and Exploitation of in Situ Magnetic Measurements
Electrochemical Growth and Magnetic Properties of Iron Group Films on Au(111)
Electrochemistry of Au(111) in Iron Group Metal Solutions Ni/Au(111) Morphology and Structure Magnetic Properties Co/Au(111)
Morphology and Structure
Magnetic Properties
Fe/Au(111)
Morphology and Structure Magnetic Properties Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgments
References

Electrodeposition and Properties of Nanoscale Magnetic/Non-magnetic
Metallic Multilayer Films

Laґszloґ Peґter and Imre Bakonyi

Introduction
Electrodeposition
Electrolyte Composition
Deposition Conditions of the More Noble Layer Deposition of the Less Noble Layer Various Multilayer Deposition Modes Nucleation of the Layers on Each Other
Properties Structure
Magnetic Properties
Magnetoresistance
Summary Acknowledgments
References

Index
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